Friday, May 31, 2013

Country Rock Wiring Wiring

Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Country Rock Wiring It S The Wiring I Described Above
Country Rock Wiring It S The Wiring I Described Above.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Need Some Wiring Help  Pickups  The Gretsch Pages
Need Some Wiring Help Pickups The Gretsch Pages.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Love Blues Music  Check Out Our Newest Site For Blues Music Lovers And
Love Blues Music Check Out Our Newest Site For Blues Music Lovers And.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Agile Guitar Forum Archive     Need Help With Gfs Wiring Diagram
Agile Guitar Forum Archive Need Help With Gfs Wiring Diagram.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Custom Classic Tele Wiring Diagram Jpgviews 19size 60 2 Kbid 14097
Custom Classic Tele Wiring Diagram Jpgviews 19size 60 2 Kbid 14097.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Nashville Tele Wiring   Telecaster Guitar Forum
Nashville Tele Wiring Telecaster Guitar Forum.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Noiseless Pickups For New Tele   Telecaster Guitar Forum
Noiseless Pickups For New Tele Telecaster Guitar Forum.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on 72 Ri Tele Custom Wiring Issue   Telecaster Guitar Forum
72 Ri Tele Custom Wiring Issue Telecaster Guitar Forum.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on My Telecasters
My Telecasters.


Telecaster Wiring Diagram on Tele Wiring Diagrams Whats Difference Tele Wiring 2 1 Jpg
Tele Wiring Diagrams Whats Difference Tele Wiring 2 1 Jpg.


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Tuesday, May 14, 2013

Variable power supply using 7805


This circuit diagram shows you how to make a 5V to 12V variable DC power supply from a fixed 5V regulator IC 7805. This is attained by adding two resistors R1 and R2 as shown in figure. When the resistors R1 and R2 are added the equation for the output voltage of 7805 becomes Vout= Vfixed + { R2 [ (V fixed/R1) + Istandby] } ,where Vfixed=5V and Istandby=Vfixed/R1.By varying the POT R2 you can adjust the output voltage between 5V and 12V.

Notes. * The circuit can be assembled on a vero board. * T1 can be a 230V primary, 9V/5A secondary stepdown transformer. * 7805 must be fitted with a heat sink. * F1 can be a 1A fuse.
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Monday, May 13, 2013

Flashing LEDs for the music

This circuit was purposely designed as a funny Halloween gadget. It should be placed to the rear of a badge or pin bearing a typical Halloween character image, e.g. a pumpkin, skull, black cat, witch, ghost etc. Two LEDs are fixed in place of the eyes of the character and will shine more or less brightly following the rhythm of the music or speech picked-up from surroundings by a small microphone. Two transistors provide the necessary amplification and drive the LEDs.
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Sunday, May 5, 2013

Time Delay Relay

When activated by pressing a button, this time delay relay will activate a load after a specified amount of time. This time is adjustable to whatever you want simply by changing the value of a resistor and/or capacitor. The current capacity of the circuit is only limited by what kind of relay you decide to use



Parts:
C1 See Notes
R1 See Notes
D1 1N914 Diode
U1 4011 CMOS NAND Gate IC
K1 6V Relay
S1 Normally Open Push Button Switch
MISC Board, Wire, Socket For U1
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Friday, May 3, 2013

Inverter

Have you ever wanted to run a TV, stereo or other appliance while on the road or camping? Well, this inverter should solve that problem. It takes 12 VDC and steps it up to 120 VAC. The wattage depends on which tansistors you use for Q1 and Q2, as well as how "big" a transformer you use for T1. The inverter can be constructed to supply anywhere from 1 to 1000 (1 KW) watts







Parts:
C1, C2 68 uf, 25 V Tantalum Capacitor
R1, R2 10 Ohm, 5 Watt Resistor
R3, R4 180 Ohm, 1 Watt Resistor
D1, D2 HEP 154 Silicon Diode
Q1, Q2 2N3055 NPN Transistor (see "Notes")
T1 24V, Center Tapped Transformer (see "Notes")
MISC Wire, Case, Receptical (For Output)

Notes:
1. Q1 and Q2, as well as T1, determine how much wattage the inverter can supply. With Q1,Q2=2N3055 and T1= 15 A, the inverter can supply about 300 watts. Larger transformers and more powerful transistors can be substituted for T1, Q1 and Q2 for more power.


2. The easiest and least expensive way to get a large T1 is to re-wind an old microwave transformer. These transformers are rated at about 1KW and are perfect. Go to a local TV repair shop and dig through the dumpster until you get the largest microwave you can find. The bigger the microwave the bigger transformer. Remove the transformer, being careful not to touch the large high voltage capacitor that might still be charged. If you want, you can test the transformer, but they are usually still good. Now, remove the old 2000 V secondary, being careful not to damage the primary. Leave the primary in tact. Now, wind on 12 turns of wire, twist a loop (center tap), and wind on 12 more turns. The guage of the wire will depend on how much current you plan to have the transformer supply. Enamel covered magnet wire works great for this. Now secure the windings with tape. Thats all there is to it. Remember to use high current transistors for Q1 and Q2. The 2N3055s in the parts list can only handle 15 amps each.
3. Remember, when operating at high wattages, this circuit draws huge amounts of current. Dont let your battery go dead :-).
4. Since this project produces 120 VAC, you must include a fuse and build the project in a case.
5. You must use tantalum capacitors for C1 and C2. Regular electrolytics will overheat and explode. And yes, 68uF is the correct value. There are no substitutions.
6. This circuit can be tricky to get going. Differences in transformers, transistors, parts substitutions or anything else not on this page may cause it to not function.
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Oil Temperature Gauge for 125 cc Scooter

Lots of Far-Eastern scooters are fitted with GY6 engines. These already elderly units are sturdy and economical, but if you want to  “push” the power a bit (so called ‘Racing’  kits, better handling of the advance, etc.), you soon find yourself faced with the problem  of the engine temperature, and it becomes essential to f it a heat sink (of ten wrongly  referred to as a ‘radiator’) on the oil circuit. Even so, in these circumstances, it’s more than reassuring for the user to have a constant clear indication of the oil temperature. Here are the specifications we set for the temperature gauge we wanted to build: 

Oil Temperature Gauge Circuit Diagram :
Oil Temperature Gauge-Circuit Diagram
  • no moving parts (so not meter movement), as scooters vibrate a lot!;
  • as cheap as possible (around £12);
  • robust measuring transducer (avoid NTC thermistors and other ‘exotic’ sensors);
  • temperature range 50–140 °C. (122 – 291 °F);
  • audible and visual warning in case of dangerous temperature;
  • compact;
  • waterproof.
Let’s start by the sensor. This is a type-K thermocouple, as regularly used by multimeter manufacturers. Readily available and fairly cheap, these are robust and have excellent linearity over the measurement range we’re interested in here. The range extends from 2 mV to 5.7 mV for ten measurement points. The positive output from the thermocouple is applied to the non-inverting input of IC3.A,  wired as a non-inverting amplifier. Its gain  of 221 is determined by R1 and R2. IC3 is an LM358, chosen for its favourable characteristics when run from a single-rail supply. IC3.B is wired as a follower, just to avoid leaving it powered with its pins floating. 

IC3.B output is connected to pin 5 of IC1, an LM3914. This very common IC is an LED display driver. We can choose ‘point’ or ‘bar’ mode operation, according to how pin 9 is connected. Connected as here to the + rail, the display will be in ‘bar’ mode. Pin 8, connected to ground, sets the full scale to 1.25 V. R3 sets the average LED current. Pin 4, via the potential divider R7/R8+R9, sets the offset  to 0.35 V. Using R8 and R9 in series like this avoids the need for precision resistors.

As per the LM3914 application sheet , R4-R5-R6 and C5 will make the whole display flash as soon as D10 lights (130 °C = 226 °F). Simultaneously, via R10 and T1, the (active) sounder will warn the user of overheating. Capacitor C6 avoids undesirable variations in the reference voltage in ‘flashing’ mode. IC2 is a conventional 7808 regulator and C1– C4 filter the supply rails. Do not leave these out! D1 protects the circuit against reverse polarity. 

The author has designed two PCBs to be fit-ted as a ‘sandwich’ (CAD file downloadable  from [1]). In the download you’ll also find  a document with a few photos of the project. You’ll note the ultimate weapon in on-board electronics: hot-melt glue. Better than epoxy (undoable!) and quite effective against vibration.
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Wednesday, May 1, 2013

Low Low Power FM Transmitter

This article should satisfy those who might want to build a low power FM transmitter. It is designed to use an input from another sound source (such as a guitar or microphone), and transmits on the commercial FM band - it is actually quite powerful, so make sure that you dont use it to transmit anything sensitive - it could easily be picked up from several hundred metres away. The FM band is 88 to 108MHz, and although it is getting fairly crowded nearly everywhere, you should still be able to find a blank spot on the dial.

NOTE: A few people have had trouble with this circuit. The biggest problem is not knowing if it is even oscillating, since the frequency is outside the range of most simple oscilloscopes. See Project 74 for a simple RF probe that will (or should) tell you that you have a useful signal at the antenna. If so, then you know it oscillates, and just have to find out at what frequency. This may require the use of an RF frequency counter if you just cannot locate the FM band.

Description

The circuit of the transmitter is shown in Figure 1, and as you can see it is quite simple. The first stage is the oscillator, and is tuned with the variable capacitor. Select an unused frequency, and carefully adjust C3 until the background noise stops (you have to disable the FM receivers mute circuit to hear this).
Low Power FM Transmitter sFigure 1 - Low Power FM Transmitter

Because the trimmer cap is very sensitive, make the final frequency adjustment on the receiver. When assembling the circuit, make sure the rotor of C3 is connected to the +9V supply. This ensures that there will be minimal frequency disturbance when the screwdriver touches the adjustment shaft. You can use a small piece of non copper-clad circuit board to make a screwdriver - this will not alter the frequency.

The frequency stability is improved considerably by adding a capacitor from the base of Q1 to ground. This ensures that the transistor operates in true common base at RF. A value of 1nF (ceramic) as shown is suitable, and will also limit the HF response to 15 kHz - this is a benefit for a simple circuit like this, and even commercial FM is usually limited to a 15kHz bandwidth.

Capacitors
All capacitors must be ceramic (with the exception of C1, see below), with C2 and C6 preferably being N750 (Negative temperature coefficient, 750 parts per million per degree Celsius). The others should be NPO types, since temperature correction is not needed (nor is it desirable). If you cannot get N750 caps, dont worry too much, the frequency stability of the circuit is not that good anyway (as with all simple transmitters).

How It Works
Q1 is the oscillator, and is a conventional Colpitts design. L1 and C3 (in parallel with C2) tunes the circuit to the desired frequency, and the output (from the emitter of Q1) is fed to the buffer and amplifier Q2. This isolates the antenna from the oscillator giving much better frequency stability, as well as providing considerable extra gain. L2 and C6 form a tuned collector load, and C7 helps to further isolate the circuit from the antenna, as well as preventing any possibility of short circuits should the antenna contact the grounded metal case that would normally be used for the complete transmitter.

The audio signal applied to the base of Q1 causes the frequency to change, as the transistors collector current is modulated by the audio. This provides the frequency modulation (FM) that can be received on any standard FM band receiver. The audio input must be kept to a maximum of about 100mV, although this will vary somewhat from one unit to the next. Higher levels will cause the deviation (the maximum frequency shift) to exceed the limits in the receiver - usually ±75kHz.

With the value shown for C1, this limits the lower frequency response to about 50Hz (based only on R1, which is somewhat pessimistic) - if you need to go lower than this, then use a 1uF cap instead, which will allow a response down to at least 15Hz. C1 may be polyester or mylar, or a 1uF electrolytic may be used, either bipolar or polarised. If polarised, the positive terminal must connect to the 10k resistor.

Inductors
The inductors are nominally 10 turns (actually 9.5) of 1mm diameter enamelled copper wire. They are close wound on a 3mm diameter former, which is removed after the coils are wound. Carefully scrape away the enamel where the coil ends will go through the board - all the enamel must be removed to ensure good contact. Figure 2 shows a detail drawing of a coil. The coils should be mounted about 2mm above the board.

For those still stuck in the dark ages with imperial measurements (grin), 1mm is about 0.04" (0.0394") or 5/127 inch (chuckle) - you will have to work out what gauge that is, depending on which wire gauge system you use (there are several). You can see the benefits of metric already, cant you? To work out the other measurements, 1" = 25.4mm

NOTE: The inductors are critical, and must be wound exactly as described, or the frequency will be wrong.
Figure 2 - Detail Of L1 And L2

The nominal (and very approximate) inductance for the coils is about 130nH.This is calculated according to the formula ...

L = N² * r² / (228r + 254l)

... where L = inductance in microhenries (uH), N = number of turns, r = average coil radius (2.0mm for the coil as shown), and l = coil length. All dimensions are in millimetres.

Pre-Emphasis

It is normal with FM transmission that "pre-emphasis" is used, and there is a corresponding amount of de-emphasis at the receiver. There are two standards (of course) - most of the world uses a 50us time constant, and the US uses 75us. These time constants represent a frequency of 3183Hz and 2122Hz respectively. This is the 3dB point of a simple filter that boosts the high frequencies on transmission and cuts the same highs again on reception, restoring the frequency response to normal, and reducing noise.

The simple transmitter above does not have this built in, so it can be added to the microphone preamp or line stage buffer circuit. These are both shown in Figure 3, and are of much higher quality than the standard offerings in most other designs.
Low Power FM Transmitter sFigure 3 - Mic And Line Preamps

Rather than a simple single transistor amp, using a TL061 opamp gives much better distortion figures, and a more predictable output impedance to the transmitter. If you want to use a dynamic microphone, leave out R1 (5.6k) since this is only needed to power an electret mic insert. The gain control (for either circuit) can be an internal preset, or a normal pot to allow adjustment to the maximum level without distortion with different signal sources. The 100nF bypass capacitors must be ceramic types, because of the frequency. Note that although a TL072 might work, they are not designed to operate at the low supply voltage used. The TL061 is specifically designed for low power operation.

The mic preamp has a maximum gain of 22, giving a microphone sensitivity of around 5mV. The line preamp has a gain of unity, so maximum input sensitivity is 100mV. Select the appropriate capacitor value for pre-emphasis as shown in Figure 3 depending on where you live. The pre-emphasis is not especially accurate, but will be quite good enough for the sorts of uses that a low power FM transmitter will be put to. Needless to say, this does not include "bugging" of rooms, as this is illegal almost everywhere.

I would advise that the preamp be in its own small sub-enclosure to prevent RF from entering the opamp input. This does not need to be anything fancy, and you could even just wrap some insulation around the preamp then just wrap the entire preamp unit in aluminium foil. Remember to make a good earth connection to the foil, or the shielding will serve no purpose.
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