Thursday, October 10, 2013

Short Circuit Protection With A MOSFET

If you have an application in which a MOSFET is already used to switch a load, it is relatively easy to add short-circuit or overload protection. Here we make use of the internal resistance RDS(ON), which produces a voltage drop that depends on the amount of current flowing through the MOSFET. The voltage across the internal resistance can be sensed using simple comparator or even a transistor, which switches on at a voltage of around 0.5V. You can thus avoid the use of a sense resistor (shunt), which usually produces an undesirable extra voltage drop. The comparator can be monitored by a microcontroller. In case of an overload, the software can initiate suitable countermeasures (PWM regulation, alarm, emergency stop etc.). It is also conceivable to connect the comparator output directly to the gate of the MOSFET, in order to immediately cut off the transistor in case of a short circuit.

Short-Circuit Protection With A MOSFET Circuit Diagram

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Yes No Indicator Has Zero Standby Current

This circuit produces a random "Yes" or "No" with a single button press - indicated by the illumination of a red or green LED. The circuit has two advantages over similar circuits. First, it uses just a single momentary contact pushbutton, so no on-off switch is required. When the pushbutton is pressed, an oscillator comprising the 10nF capacitor and 22kΩ resistor at pins 1 & 2 is almost immediately stopped by FET Q1, which pulls the oscillators timing capacitor to the positive rail. However, the 220nF capacitor and 470kΩ resistor in the gate circuit of Q1 introduce a tenth of a seconds delay, so that about 250 oscillations take place before the clock is stopped.

Due to variations in charge on the circuits capacitors, as well as voltage and temperature variations, and the unpredictability of when the pushbutton will be pressed, randomness is assured. The circuit has a high degree of randomness because it takes advantage of a near-perfect complementary square waveform at pins 10 and 11 of the 4047 IC. The oscillator frequency (available at pin 13) is passed through an internal divide-by-2 circuit in the 4047. This appears at pin 10 (Q), and is inverted at pin 11 (Q-bar), thus assuring a near perfect 50:50 duty cycle for the two LEDs.
Yes-No indicator has zero standby current circuit schematic

However, that the "impartiality" of the circuit is partly contingent on the value of the 10nF capacitor and on a reasonably equal current flow through both LEDs. Over five trials, the Yes-No Indicator scored 142 Yes, 158 No, with Yes falling behind No in the fourth trial. Because the circuit only works while switch S1 is pressed, standby current is zero, therefore a miniature 12V battery may be used to power it. In this case the circuit could be used thousands of times before the battery would run flat. The circuit has a further potential use. If the LEDs are omitted and a piezo (capacitive) sounder is wired directly to pins 10 and 11, it will produce a loud beep when equipment is turned on, and will continue to draw less than 0.5mA until it is switched off. The frequency of the beep may be changed by altering the value of the 10nF capacitor and its duration by altering the value of the 220nF capacitor.

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

Headphone Amplifier Using Discrete Components

An amplifier to drive low to medium impedance headphones built using discrete components.

Both halves of the circuit are identical. Both inputs have a dc path to ground via the input 47k control which should be a dual log type potentiometer. The balance control is a single 47k linear potentiometer, which at center adjustment prevents even attenuation to both left and right input signals. If the balance control is moved towards the left side, the left input track has less resistance than the right track and the left channel is reduced more than the right side and vice versa. The preceding 10k resitors ensure that neither input can be "shorted" to earth.

Headphone Amplifier Circuit DiagramAmplification of the audio signal is provided by a single stage common emitter amplifier and then via a direct coupled emitter follower. Overall gain is less than 10 but the final emitter follower stage will directly drive 8 ohm headphones. Higher impedance headphones will work equally well. Note the final 2k2 resistor at each output. This removes the dc potential from the 2200u coupling capacitors and prevents any "thump" being heard when headphones are plugged in. The circuit is self biasing and designed to work with any power supply from 6 to 20 Volts DC.

Monday, October 7, 2013



Why Class A ? Because , when biased to class A, the transistors are always turned on, always ready to respond instantaneously to an input signal. Class B and Class AB output stages require a microsecond or more to turn on. The Class A operation permits cleaner operation under the high-current slewing conditions that occur when transient audio signal are fed difficult loads. His amplifier is basically simple, as can be seen from the block diagram.

Sunday, October 6, 2013

You Have Mail!

If your letterbox is some distance from your house, you will find a monitoring device useful to indicate when new post has arrived. This can take the form of a US-style visible flag; a more modern alternative uses a 433 MHz radio transceiver. The big advantage of the solution presented here is that is can use an existing two-core bell cable, without requiring any further power source. The arrival of post is signalled by a blinking LED; for added effect, a digital voice recorder can also be connected which will, at regular intervals, announce the fact that the letterbox needs emptying. The device is silenced by a reset button.

The circuit uses one half-cycle of the AC supply to power the bell or buzzer, and the other half-cycle for the post indicator. Suitably-oriented diodes in the device and in the letterbox ensure that the two signals are independent of one another (Figure 1). The bell current flows from K1.A through D3, bell-push S2, D1 and the relay back to K1.B. C1 provides adequate smoothing of the current pulses to ensure that the relay armature does not vibrate. The bell is operated by the normally-open relay contact. If the bell is actually a low-current piezo buzzer, then it can be connected directly and the relay dispensed with.

During the half-cycle for the letterbox monitor current flows from connection K1.B on the bell transformer through current-limiting resistor R1, the LED in the optocoupler, reed contact S1 (a micro-switch can also be used) and D2 and finally back to K1. If the reed contacts are closed, the LED in the optocoupler will light and switch on the phototransistor. A positive voltage will then appear across R3 which will turn the thyristor on via C6. The red LED will indicate that post has arrived. Pressing S3 shorts out the thyristor, reducing the current through it below the holding value. A small extra circuit can be added to provide continuous letterbox monitoring.

You Have Mail!This takes the form of a voice recorder whose ‘play’ button is operated by transistor T1. T1 in turn is driven by a 555 timer IC. In the usual 555 timer circuit, where the device is configured as an astable multi-vibrator, the mark-space ratio cannot be set with complete freedom. Here two diodes provide separate charge and discharge paths for capacitor C4. When capacitor C4 is charging, D5 conducts and D4 blocks: the charge rate is determined by R5. When discharging, D4 conducts and R6 and the potentiometer determine the rate. The values shown give a pulse length of approximately 0.5 s with a delay of between 15 s and 32 s.

The short pulse is sufficient to trigger the voice recorder module via transistor T1 connected across its ‘play’ button. The voice recorder module (e.g. Conrad order code 115266) is designed to run from a 6 V supply. The maximum recording time is 20 s and the current consumption is 20 mA when recording and between 40 mA and 60 mA when playing back. Since our supply is at 8 V, the excess voltage must be dropped using between 1 and 3 series-connected 1N4148 diodes (shown as Dx in the circuit diagram). The final voltage should be checked using a multimeter. Alternatively, a 7806 can be used without suffering a significant loss in volume.

If it is desired to use a piezo buzzer to provide an acoustic signal, the pulse length should be increased to at least 2s. In this case, R5 should be increased to 560 kΩ or 680 kΩ: the pulse length, t on, is 0.7.R5.C4, and the interval between pulses, t off, is 0.7. (R6+R7).C4. Suitable buzzers are available with a wide range of rated voltages.

Saturday, October 5, 2013

12V Speed Controller Dimmer

This handy circuit can be used as a speed controller for a 12V motor rated up to 5A (continuous) or as a dimmer for a 12V halogen or standard incandescent lamp rated up to 50W. It varies the power to the load (motor or lamp) using pulse width modulation (PWM) at a pulse frequency of around 220Hz.

SILICON CHIP has produced a number of DC speed controllers over the years, the most recent being our high-power 24V 40A design featured in the March & April 2008 issues. Another very popular design is our 12V/24V 20A design featured in the June 1997 issue and we have also featured a number of reversible 12V designs.

Circuit looks like:


For many applications though, most of these designs are over-kill and a much simpler circuit will suffice. Which is why we are presenting this basic design which uses a 7555 timer IC, a Mosfet and not much else. Being a simple design, it does not monitor motor back-EMF to provide improved speed regulation and nor does it have any fancy overload protection apart from a fuse. However, it is a very efficient circuit and the kit cost is quite low.

Parts layout:


Connection diagram:


There are many applications for this circuit which will all be based on 12V motors, fans or lamps. You can use it in cars, boats, and recreational vehicles, in model boats and model railways and so on. Want to control a 12V fan in a car, caravan or computer? This circuit will do it for you.

Circuit diagram:


The circuit uses a 7555 timer (IC1) to generate variable width pulses at about 210Hz. This drives Mosfet Q3 (via transistors Q1 & Q2) to control the speed of a motor or to dim an incandescent lamp.
Halogen lamps:
While the circuit can dim 12V halogen lamps, we should point out that dimming halogen lamps is very wasteful. In situations where you need dimmable 12V lamps, you will be much better off substituting 12V LED lamps which are now readily available in standard bayonet, miniature Edison screw (MES) and MR16 halogen bases. Not only are these LED replacement lamps much more efficient than halogen lamps, they do not get anywhere near as hot and will also last a great deal longer.

Source: Silicon Chip 15 November 2008


Friday, October 4, 2013

Video Tracer Circuit Diagram

This circuit was designed as an aid to installers and maintainers of video systems. It is basically a video sync separator (IC1) followed by a LED and buzzer driver (IC2, Q1 & Q2). In use, the device is connected to a video cable and if there is video present, the LED will flash at about 10Hz. If there is no video, the LED flashes briefly every couple of seconds. A buzzer can also be switched in to provide an audible indication. The buzzer is particularly useful when tracing cabling faults or trying to find a correct cable amongst many, where it is difficult to keep an eye on the LED.
Another use for the buzzer option is to provide a video fault indication. For example, it could be inserted in bridging mode, with switch S1 in high impedance mode (position 2) across a video line and set to alarm when there is no video present. If someone pulls out a cable or the video source is powered off, the alarm would sound. IC1 is a standard LM1881 video sync separator circuit and 75Ω termination can be switched in or out with switch S1a. The other pole of the switch, S1b, turns on the power. The composite sync output at pin 1 is low with no video input and it pulses high when composite sync is detected.
Circuit diagram:
These pulses charge a 100nF capacitor via diode D1. When there is no video at the input, oscillator IC2b is enabled and provides a short pulse every couple of seconds to flash the LED. The duty cycle is altered by including D2, so that the discharge time for the 10μF capacitor is much shorter than the charge time. The short LED pulse is used as a power-on indicator drawing minimal average current. When video is present at the input, IC2b is disabled and IC2d is enabled. The output of IC2d provides a 10Hz square wave signal to flash the LED. The buzzer is controlled by switch S2. In position 2 the buzzer will sound when there is video at the input and in position 1 the buzzer will sound when there is no video at the input.
Author: Leon Williams - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics

Thursday, October 3, 2013

1993 VW Passat Electrical Circuit Diagram

1993 VW Passat Electrical Circuit Diagram
The Part of 1993 VW Passat Electrical Circuit Diagram: automatic control unit,  fuse/relay panel and
emergency lights, fuse/relay panel and fresh air blower switch, Engine control module and ignition coil, console switch, power windows, ABS control unit and ABS hydraulic unit, fuse relay panel and instrument cluster, and taillight, fuse/relay panel and headlight switch, automatic sol, fuse/relay panel and ignition switch, Engine control module.

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Voltage Regulator Calculation

Before you can design an adjustable voltage regulator into your circuit, or do a redesign, you need to calculate the values for two resistors. This is not difficult in itself, but actually finding the right resistors may pose problems. Fortunately a trick is available to make it all much easier. With most adjustable voltage regulators like the LM317 and LM337, the input voltage has to be 1.2 to 1.25 volts above the desired output voltage. This is because the voltage at the ADJ (adjust) input is internally compared to a reference voltage with that value. The reference voltage always exists across R1.
Voltage Regulator CalculationTogether with preset R2 it determines the current flowing through the ADJ pin, as follows: Vout = VREF [1+(R2/R1)]+I ADJ R2 If for the sake of convenience we ignore I ADJ, enter the reference voltage (1.2 V) and for R1 select a value of one thousand times that voltage (i.e., 1.2 k?) then the equation is simplified to: R2 = 1000 (Vout – 1.2) In practice, simply determine the voltage drop across R2 (output voltage minus reference voltage) and you get your resistance value directly in kilo-ohms. For example, for 5 V R2 becomes 5–1.2 = 3.8 k? which is easiest made by connecting 3.3k and 470R resistors in series. In the case of relatively low voltages, smaller resistor values are recommended. This is because sufficient current needs to flow to enable the voltage regulator to do its job. A simple solution is to choose, say, 120 ? for R1. R2 then becomes: R2 = 100 (Vout – 1.2)

Tuesday, October 1, 2013

Fuse Box BMW 318i 1991 Diagram

Fuse Box BMW 318i 1991 Diagram - Here are new post for Fuse Box BMW 318i 1991 Diagram.

Fuse Box BMW 318i 1991 Diagram

Fuse Box BMW 318i 1991 Diagram
Fuse Box BMW 318i 1991 Diagram

Fuse Panel Layout Diagram Parts: seat heating, high beam headlight, auxiliary fan, sliding roof, flashing turn indicator, mirror control, wiper, washer, horn, brake light, cruise control, heated rear window, GLOVEBOX, LUGGAGE COMPARTMENT LIGHT, ON BOARD COMPUTER.instruments, on board computer, reversing light, fuel supply pump, radio, check control and instrument, fog light, fog light, cigar lighter, central locking, door lock heating, hazard warning flasher, parking light, license plate light.