Monday, September 30, 2013

9V DC Adapter With Battery Backup

With just a low cost DC adapter and the circuit described here it is possible to build a low cost stabilized, uninterruptable 9V supply. On the grounds of safety and economy, a simple unstabilized 12V D.C. adapter is used as the power source, a universal adapter with its output set to 12 V will do equally well. The output voltage of an adapter under low load conditions (up to approximately 1/3 of the rated output current) is over 15 V, even at the rated output current, there will be sufficient voltage to supply a 9 V voltage regulator. The rating of the DC adapter should be chosen according to the output current required at 9V. Common values are 300mA, 500mA and 1A.

The 9V voltage regulator used in this circuit has a built in thermal shutdown mechanism so that if too much current is drawn from the device, it simply turns off as it overheats and will not supply any current until the case temperature returns to normal. If the unit is intended to supply more than say 150-200mA then to prevent thermal shutdown it will be necessary to fit a heatsink to the voltage regulator. The rule of thumb used to calculate the size of heatsink is that you should be able to touch it during operation at maximum load, without burning you finger. When choosing the DC adapter, it is always better to select one with a higher current rating than is needed this will ensure that its output voltage is high enough to be able to also charge the 12V cells.

DC Adapter with Battery Backup Circuit DiagramAs long as mains voltage is on the DC adapter, the voltage across C1 will be higher than the voltage of the cells. Charging current will flow through R1 and D1 to the cells. Current also flows to the voltage regulator and out to the load connected at the output. Diode D2 in this situation will not conduct because the voltage at its cathode is greater than that at its anode When the mains voltage fails or is turned off, diode D2 conducts and current will now flow from the Nickel Cadmium cells to the voltage regulator, thereby automatically keeping the output voltage at 9V. The value of resistor R1 is chosen so that a charging current to the cells is not greater than 1/10th of the cells capacity (if the cells are rated at 1100mAh, the charging current must not exceed 110mA).

From the point of view of cell longevity it is better to reduce this charging current even further (1/20 or 1/50 C). When calculating this resistor, the value of the no-load voltage should be used. This will give the highest charging current. To calculate the charging current using R1 with a value of 180 Ω. The cells measure 13.8 V when fully charged and the no-load output voltage of the DC adapter is 17V. Charging current is given by the formula: (17V – 13.8V – 0.7V) / 180 = 13.9mA. Substituting the actual measured values in this formula will enable you to calculate the value of R1 to give the correct charging current for the cells.

Sunday, September 29, 2013

Simple Knock Alarm With Piezo Sensor

This circuit uses a thin piezoelectric sensor to sense the vibrations generated by knocking on a surface; eg, a door or table. Basically, it amplifies and processes the signal from the sensor and sounds an alarm for a preset period. In operation, the piezoelectric sensor converts mechanical vibration into an electrical signal. This sensor can be attached to a door, a cash box, cupboard, etc using adhesive. A 1-1.5m long shielded cable can then be connected between the sensor plate and the input of the circuit. The signal generated by the sensor is amplified by transistors Q1-Q3 which are wired as common-emitter amplifiers.

Simple knock alarm with piezo sensor circuit schematic

The signal is then rectified by diode D1 and amplified by transistors Q4-Q6. As shown, the output from Q6s collector is fed to pin 4 (reset) of 555 timer IC1. This is wired as an astable multivibrator. Each time Q6 turns on, its collector goes high and IC1 activates and produces an alarm tone in the speaker. The alarm automatically turns off 10s after knocking ceases - ie, the time taken for the 22µF capacitor on Q4s emitter to discharge. Finally, note that it may be necessary to adjust the 470O resistor in Q6s collector circuit to ensure that IC1 remains off in the absence of any perceptible knock. A value somewhere between 220O and 680O should be suitable.

Saturday, September 28, 2013

Headlight Reminder

With the storm season recently upon us, it’s not uncommon to switch car headlights on during the daytime. Unfortunately, it’s easy to forget to turn them off again when parking, with the result being a flat battery. This circuit will sound an alarm if the ignition switch is moved to the "off" position while the car lights are on, reminding you to turn the lights off before leaving the vehicle.
The circuit is simple but effective. A 555 timer (IC1) is configured as a free-running oscillator to drive a small piezo transducer. The pitch of the transducer is set by the resistor and capacitor connected to pins 2 & 6. Power for the 555 is derived from the dashboard lighting circuit. However, the piezo does not sound during normal operation, because the 555’s reset input (pin 4) is held low by transistor Q1.
Circuit diagram:
This transistor is switched on whenever accessory power is present, pulling its collector towards ground (0V). If the ignition is switched off but the lighting circuit remains powered, the loss of accessory power results in Q1 switching off and releasing the reset signal to IC1, sounding the alarm. A 220Ω resistor in series with the piezo protects the 555’s output (pin 3). Although most piezo elements have relatively high impedance, this drops as the frequency increases due to their capacitive nature.
The square-wave output on pin 3 includes many harmonics, some extending well into the ultrasonic range. The unit fits easily into a small plastic box. I spliced mine into the wiring running to the cigarette lighter, which includes both accessories and panel lamp circuits as well as a chassis ground wire. The result fits neatly behind the ashtray, with no chassis bashing required!
Author: Bruce Colledge - Copyright: Silicon Chip Electronics

Friday, September 27, 2013

Isolated Fuse Fail Indicator

This circuit uses standard components and shows a method of indicating the fuse status of mains powered equipment while providing electrical isolation from the mains supply. A standard miniature low power mains transformer (e.g. with an output of around 6 V at 1.5 VA) is used as a ‘sense’ transformer with its primary winding (230 V) connected across the equipment’s input fuse so that when the fuse blows, mains voltage is applied to the transformer and a 6 V ac output voltage appears at the secondary winding. The 1N4148 diode rectifies this voltage and the LED lights to indicate that the fuse has failed.

Isolated Fuse Fail Indicator Circuit DiagramThe rectified voltage is now connected to an RC low-pass filter formed by the 10 kΩ resistor and 100 nF capacitor. The resulting positive signal can now be used as an input to an A/D converter or as a digital input to a microcontroller (make sure that the signal level is within the microcontroller input voltage level specification). The 1 MΩ resistor is used to discharge the capacitor if the input impedance of the connected equipment is very high. As long as the fuse remains intact it will short out the primary winding of the ‘sense’ transformer so that its secondary output is zero.

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Light Gate With Counter Using 555 And 4033

The circuit described here counts the number of times that an infrared beam is interrupted. It could be used to count the number of people entering a room, for instance, or how often a ball or another object passes through an opening (handy for playing shuffleboard). The heart of the circuit consists of - you guessed it - a light gate! Diode D1 is an IR diode that normally illuminates IR transistor T1. The light falling on T1 causes it to conduct to a certain extent. The resulting voltage on the collector of T1 should be just low enough to prevent the following transistor (T2) from conducting. This voltage can be adjusted within certain limits using P1.

As soon as an object comes between D1 and T1, the light shining on T1 will be partially or fully blocked, causing the IR transistor to conduct less current. As a result, the voltage on its collector will increase, producing a brief rise in the voltage on the base of T2. This will cause T2 to conduct and generate a negative edge at IC1. This negative edge will trigger the monostable multivibrator, which will then hold the output signal on pin 3 ‘high’ for a certain length of time (in this case, one second). At this point, two things will occur. First, a buzzer will be energized by the output of IC1 and produce a tone for approximately one second.

Light Gate With Counter Using 555 And 4013 Circuit DiagramWhen the buzzer stops, a negative edge will be applied to the clock input of IC2, causing the counter in IC2 to be incremented by 1. IC2 is conveniently equipped with an internal binary-to-BCD decoder, so its outputs only have to be buffered by IC3 and T3 to allow the state of the counter to be shown on the 7-segment display. Switch S1 can be used to reset the counter to zero. If a one-second interval does not suit your wishes, you can modify the values of R3 or C1 to adjust the time. Increasing the value of R3 lengthens the interval, and decreasing it naturally shortens the interval.

The same is true of C1. When building the circuit, make sure that T1 is well illuminated by the light from D1, while at the same time ensuring that T1 ‘sees’ as little ambient light as possible. This can best be done by fitting T1 in a small tube that is precisely aimed toward D1. The longer the tube, the less ambient light will reach T1. The sensitivity of the circuit can be adjusted using P1.

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Super Light Sensor

This "Super Light Sensor" responds to minute fluctuations in light level, auto-adjusting over the range from about 200 lux up to 60,000 lux (ie, from a modestly lit room to direct sunlight). It has lots of potential uses - eg, detecting a car entering a driveway, a person moving in a room, or wind rustling the leaves of a tree. At the same time, it has a high level of rejection of natural light variations, such as sunrise, sunset and the movement of clouds. While it is a "passive" system, it can also be used as an "active" system - ie, used in conjunction with a light beam.

Its great advantage here is that, since it responds to fluctuations in light level rather than the crossing of a specific light threshold, it is much more flexible than other typical "active" systems. It can be placed within the line-of-sight of almost any light source, including "vague" ambient light, and simply switched on. As shown, the LDR is wired as part of a voltage divider so that, between darkness and full sunlight, its output at "X" varies between about one-quarter and three-quarters of the supply voltage. A wide variety of sensors may be used in place of the LDR, including photo-transistors, photo-diodes and infrared and ultraviolet devices.

Super light sensor circuit schematic
Fig.1: light level fluctuations are detected by LDR1 and the resulting signal fed to comparator stage IC1. IC1 in turn triggers 7555 timer IC2 which is wired as a monostable and this drives transistor Q2 and a relay.

The signal from the sensor is fed to the inputs of comparator IC1 via two 150kO resistors. However, any signal fluctuations will be slightly delayed on pin 3 compared to pin 2, due to the 220nF capacitor. As a result, the pin 6 output of the comparator (IC1) switches low during short-term signal fluctuations and this triggers monostable timer IC2. IC2 in turn switches on transistor Q2 which activates Relay 1. It also lights LED1 via a 1.5kO current-limiting resistor. Trimpot VR2 allows the monostable period to be adjusted between about 3s and 30s.

As with all such circuits, the Super Light Sensor may not work as well under AC lighting as under natural lighting. If AC lighting does prove a problem, a 16µF (16V) electrolytic capacitor can be connected between the sensor output and ground to filter the signal to the comparator. When pin 3 of IC2 goes high, FET Q1 also turns on and pulls pin 2 of IC2 high. This transistor remains on for a very short period after pin 3 goes low again due to the 100nF capacitor on its gate. This "blanking" is done to allow the circuit time to settle again after the relay disengages (and stops drawing current).

LDR placement:
Super Light Sensor circuit schematic
Fig.2: the LDR should be installed inside a black tube, as shown here.

The "blanking" also makes it possible to run external circuits from the same power supply as the Super Light Sensor, without upsetting the circuit. The current consumption is less than 10mA on standby, so that battery operation (eg, 8 x AA batteries) is feasible. After building the circuit, switch on and wait for the circuit to settle. Its then just a matter of adjusting VR1 so that the circuit has good sensitivity without false triggering. With some experimentation, its possible to set the circuit to change seamlessly from natural to AC lighting. If maximum sensitivity under natural lighting false triggers the circuit under AC, then adjust VR1 to give maximum sensitivity under AC (and vice versa).

In daylight, the Super Light Sensor will typically detect a single finger moving at a distance of 3m, without the use of any lenses. It will also detect a person crossing a path at a distance of more than 10m, again without lenses. And when used as an "active" system, it will typically detect a person walking in front of an ordinary light source (eg, a 60W incandescent light-bulb) at more than 10m. Note that these ranges are achieved by placing the LDR (which is used as the light sensor) in a black tube, as shown in Fig.2. A single lens will double these distances, while the use of two lenses in an "active" system will multiply the basic range by 6 or 7.

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

8 Volt DC PSU With Over Voltage Protection

This 8V DC power supply was designed for use with an expensive piece of electronic equipment. It features full over-voltage protection as a precaution against regulator failure, either in the supply itself or inside the equipment it is powering. The circuit uses a conventional full-wave rectifier, followed by a 3-terminal voltage regulator (REG1) with appropriate filtering. When power is applied and switch S1 is in the "Run" position, REG1s output is fed to the load via a 500mA fuse and Schottky diode D3.

This also lights LED2 (yellow) and LED3 (green), which respectively indicate the presence of the unregulated and regulated voltages. D3 is there to protect the circuit against external voltage sources (eg, charged capacitors). A "crowbar" circuit comprising ZD1 and SCR1 provides the over-voltage protection. It works like this: if a fault develops (eg, REG1 short circuit) which causes the output voltage to rise above 9.1V, ZD1 turns on and applies a voltage to the gate of SCR1.

8V DC Power Supply With Over-Voltage Protection circuit schematic

If the voltage then continues to rise, SCR1 turns on (at about 10V) and "blows" the fuse. Zener diode ZD2 provides emergency over-voltage protection in case the "crowbar" circuit develops a fault. Switch S1 is provided so the operator can occasionally test the "crowbar" function. When S1 is switched to the "Test" posi­tion, the load is disconnected by S1b and the unregulated supply voltage is applied by S1a to the "crowbar" circuit, thus causing it to trigger. When this happenS, LEDs 2 & 3 (green and yellow) extinguish and LED1 (red) lights to indicate that the SCR has triggered. The SCR turns off again when S1 is switched back to the "Run" position.

Monday, September 23, 2013

IR Remote Control Tester Circuit Diagram

Here’s a simple, low cost, and easy to construct infrared remote control tester. The tester is built around an easily available infrared receiver module (TSOP 1238).

Circuit Diagram:

Schematic diagram of IR remote control tester IR Remote Control Tester Circuit Diagram

Normally, data output pin 3 of the IR receiver module is at a high level (5 volts)and as such driver transistor T1 is in cut-off state. Whenever the IR receiver module receives a valid (modulated) infrared signal, its data output pin goes low in synchronism with the received infrared bursts. As a result, transistor T1 conducts during negative pulse period and the.LED blinks to indicate reception of signals from the remote such as TV remote control. A miniature active buzzer is connected at the collector of transistor T1 for audio indication.


Proposed enclosure with front-panel

The 5V DC for energizing the circuit is directly derived from the 230V AC mains supply. Unlike the conventional resistive voltage divider, a capacitive potential divider is used here, which does not radiate any heat and makes the tester quite compact. Another advantage of this tester is no false triggering due to the ambient light or electronic ballast-operated tubelights. A suggested enclosure for the circuit is shown in Fig. 2.

Author : T.K. Hareendran : Copyright :Electronics For You September 2002


Sunday, September 22, 2013



The interface is fully compatible with the popular ELM327 command set and supports all legislated OBD-II communication protocols, as well as the heavy-duty SAE J1939. It features automatic protocol detection, a large memory buffer, a UART interface capable of speeds of up to 10 Mbps, and a bootloader for easy firmware updates. The microOBD draws less than 1 mA in Standby mode, which makes it suitable for permanent in-vehicle installations. The host can force the module to enter the lowpower state by sending it an explicit “sleep” command or pulling the digital “host present” pin low. The module can also put itself in Standby automatically on UART inactivity or by sensing that the engine is off. Typical applications include diagnostic scan tools, code readers, data loggers, digital dashboards, fleet management, and vehicle tracking.

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Fuse Box BMW 318is 1994 Diagram

Fuse Box BMW 318is 1994 Diagram - Here are new post for Fuse Box BMW 318is 1994 Diagram.

Fuse Box BMW 318is 1994 Diagram

Fuse Box BMW 318is 1994 Diagram
Fuse Box BMW 318is 1994 Diagram

Fuse Panel Layout Diagram Parts: comfort relay, crash control module, park ventilation relay, transmitter, receiver module.

Friday, September 20, 2013

Fuse Box BMW 2000 328i Engine Compartment Diagram

Fuse Box BMW 2000 328i Engine Compartment Diagram - Here are new post for Fuse Box BMW 2000 328i Engine Compartment Diagram.

Fuse Box BMW 2000 328i Engine Compartment Diagram

Fuse Box BMW 2000 328i Engine Compartment Diagram
Fuse Box BMW 2000 328i Engine Compartment Diagram

Fuse Panel Layout Diagram Parts: interior light, light module, make up mirror light, navigation, on board computer, outside mirror, parking aid, passenger compartment, radio, rain sensor, rear wiper, roller sun blind, secondary air pump, side airbag, socket, speed control, starter interlock, telephone, trailer coupling, window lift, windscreen washer.

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Switch ON OFF Touch or with Push Button Circuit Diagram

Here we have three choices, with which we can make electronic switches that use our touch or pressing (push button). We thus exploit the very big resistance of entry, that present the gates CMOS. In the fig.1 we have two gates NAND or NOR (IC1), connected as R-S flip-flop. Just as we press the switch S1, the exit 3 it becomes [H], even it is maintained in this situation.

To change the situation, it should we press switch S2. Now exit 3, takes price (L), reversely exit 4 becomes (H). In order to we maintain the situation that we want, we can connect at parallel with the corresponding switch, a capacitor C=100nF. This entry will always drive the corresponding exit to logic (L), immediately afterwards the benefit of supply to the circuit.

Switch ON-OFF Touch or with Push Button Schematic

Switch ON-OFF Touch or with Push Button Schematic

In the fig. 2, we have a circuit of inverter CMOS, in the entry of which is applied logic situation (H), from the resistance R, which the other end of, is in the supply. Exit 2 has situation (L).

When we press switch S2, in the entry of 3 IC2, we have situation (L), this it goes to the ground, the exit now becomes (H). This situations are maintained as long as we keep pressed switch S2 and they change immediately hardly the touch. If we want opposite logic operation then it will be supposed we connect the resistance R, in the ground and switch S2, in the supply. The same logic we will have if we replace gate IC2, with a gate NAND or NOR, as it appears in the fig. 3, the result is the himself.

Because the situation in the case of fig.1 and 3, does not remain constant and change when we pull our finger , in order to him we retain, it should we connect a J-K or D flip-flop as T, after the IC2 and IC3. Thus the flip-flop, will change situation, each time where we will touch the switch or will touch the contacts and him it will retain.

All the switches can be replaced with contacts, it is enough we replace also resistances R with the price of 10MΩ. The Resistances R when we use pressing switches can are, from 100KΩ until 1MΩ. Because when we use contacts instead of switches, the noise can turn on the gates of fig. 2 and 3, then can place a capacitor 100nF, parallel with the contacts.[via]

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Robot Shield for Arduino

The idea behind this post is to bring together some robot designs and transform them in a new device with new hardware and standard software (arduino of course) and so easier to use.  These robots have three things in common: a mechanical structure, the hardware and the software. While the mechanical part is necessarily different.

Robot Shield for Arduino
We wanted to understand if there was a hardware board that could be common, with a unique development system. The choice, quite obviously, has the Arduino board, which with its development environment is perfect to create similar projects.

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Solar Powered Animal Scarer

Here is a solar powered Flasher to scare away the nocturnal animals like bats and cats from the farm yard or premises of the house. The brilliant multicolored flashes confuse these animals and they avoid the hostile situation. It is fully automatic, turns on in the evening and turns off in the morning.

The circuit has an LDR controlled oscillator built around the Binary counter IC CD 4060.The functioning of the IC is controlled through its reset pin 12. During day time, LDR conducts and keeps the reset pin of IC high so that it remains dormant. During night, LDR cease to conduct and the reset pin will be grounded through VR1. This triggers the IC and it stats oscillating using the components C1 and VR2. Output pins 7, 5 and 4 are used to power the LEDs strings.

VR1 adjusts the sensitivity of LDR and VR2, the flashing rate of LEDs. High bright Red, Blue and White LEDs are used in the circuit to give brilliant flashes. Red LEDs flash very fast, followed by blue and then White. White LEDs remains on for few seconds and provide light to a confined area. More LEDs can be added in the strings if desired. The circuit can also function with 12 volt DC.

Animal Repellent Circuit diagram:

The circuit uses a solar powered battery power supply. During daytime, battery charges through R1 and D1.Green LED indicates the charging mode. During night time current from the solar cell decreases and D1 reverse biases. At the same time D2 forward biases to provide power to the circuit. Resistor R1 restricts the charging current and the high value capacitor C1 is a buffer for current.

Animal Scarer Solar Power Supply Circuit diagram:


Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Low Power Transceiver Using by ADF7242

This low power transceiver circuit project is designed using the ADF7242 fully integrated low-cost, short-range, low power transceiver designed for operation in the global 2.4 GHz ISM band.The receive path of the ADF7242 low power transceiver circuit is based on a zero-IF architecture enabling high blocking and selectivity performance. The transmit path is based on a direct closed loop VCO modulation scheme. The ADF7242 has a low consumption power that make it suitable for battery powered systems.

Low Power Transceiver Circuit diagram

The ADF7242 supports IEEE 802.15.4 compliant DSSS-OQPSK modulation with a bitrate of 250 kbps and also supports FSK and GFSK modulation with bitrates from 62.5 kbps to 2 Mbps.ADF7242 fully supports arbitrary data rates only for FSK mode of operation. The ADF7242 also has a built in battery monitor features that has a very low power consumption and may be used in parallel with any mode of operation, except SLEEP state. The battery monitor generates a battery alert interrupt for the MCU when the battery voltage drops below the programmed threshold voltage.

Monday, September 2, 2013

Audio Amplifier with High Clarity Circuit

Circuit Diagram

The heart of the circuit is TDA7294 which acts as an amplifier the right and left input feded from the pre amplifier circuit is amplified after passing through the noise filter which contains an RC circuit, the volume is controlled by the variable resistor 47k. and the automatic gain control is provided by the operational amplifier circuit opp amp IC249 For both right channel and left channel., the speaker used is an 8 ohms 40 watts speaker. 


Sunday, September 1, 2013

A Basic IR Link

A basic Imfra Red Link for audio communication for distances upto 3 metres.

Ovo je shema jednostavne bez?i?ne komunikacije sa malo komponenata .Diode d1 i d2 su infracrvene le-diode ,a foto transistor je tako?er infracrveni radi ?to manjeg vanjskog utjecaja .Domet ure?aja je oko 3m no on se mo?e promijeniti brojem le-dioda i naponom koji se dovede na diode.Na izlaz se ?ak mogu i direktno spojiti slu?alice.Link mo?e poslu?iti i za prijenos drugih vrsta signala..Na popisu komponenata nema kriti?nih dijelova i izrada sklopa je jako jeftina. Uz malo pa?nje ne moe da ne radi.
P.S Transistors can be replaced with 2N3904 and 2N2222

In his circuit Milan has created a basic Infra Red transmitter and receiver. The transmitter comprises a single amplifying stage driving two series connected IR LEDS. The input source is connected to J1. Please note that the device will pass a small DC current through it and also directly bias the transistor. A suitable device is therefore a high output crystal microphone. These can produce high output voltages up to 1 Volt but this will be reduced by the transistors low input impedance.

The receiver is three stages, the first stage being a phototransistor. Stages two and three form a high gain darlington emitter follower, the bias for the whole stage derived through R2 and the phototransistor itself. C1 and R3 form a filter to reduce interference from flourescent lighting and other hum sources. The output is via Jack J2. Note also that the output device will pass a small DC current so a medium impedance loudspeaker or hwadphones are a good choice here.