Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Tri Waveform Generator

The Tri-Waveform Generator can be used for a number of different uses. The one that I use it for is a signal generator to test circuits. The frequency range is 20 to 20khz. and can be adjusted by R1. The duty cycle or the time that the waveform is high and the time that the waveform is low can be adjusted by R4. The purpose of R2 and R3 are to clean up any distortion on the sine wave output. To do this you must hook up the sine wave output to and oscilloscope and adjust R2 & R3 to make the sine wave as accurate as possible.


Sound Activated Switch II

With this sound activated switch, control by sound may be very useful, not just on a robot but also for a bit of home automation, for example a sound-activated light responding to a knock on the door or a hand clap. The light will be automatically switched off after a few seconds. An alternative use is burglar protection — if someone wants to open the door or break something the light will come on, suggesting that someone’s at home. The circuit can work from any 5–12 VDC regulated power supply provided a relay with the suitable coil voltage is used.

Sound activated switch circuit diagram
Circuit Project: Sound Activated Switch circuit

When you first connect the supply voltage to the sound activated switch circuit, the relay will be energised because of the effect of capacitor C2. Allow a few seconds for the relay to be switched off. You can increase or decrease the ‘on’ period by changing the value of C2. A higher value results in a longer ‘on’ period, and vice versa. Do not use a value greater than 47μF.

Biasing resistor R1 determines to a large extent the microphone sensitivity. An electret microphone usually has one internal FET inside which requires a bias voltage to operate. The optimum bias level for response to sound has to be found by trial and error. All relevant electrical safety precautions should be observed when connecting mains powered loads to the relay contacts.

Friday, April 26, 2013

Voltage Regulators Protector

People ceaselessly fail to remember that many voltage regulator ICs have an upper restrict (usually 35 V) on the input voltage they are able to deal with. That applies essentially to sorts with a fixed output voltage. Adjustable voltage regulators actually have a maximum voltage specification, in that case between the enter and output (commonly forty V). The enter voltage should as a result be limited to that stage in a fault situation through which the output is briefed. This circuit presentations a solution to enable such regulators for use in state of affairss with greater input voltages. Although the answer includes an extra three parts, it is easy and can also be constructed using usually available components.

The voltage throughout the regulator is restricted by using the mix of T1 and zener diode D1 to a price that lets the regulator to work properly with loads up to the most rated load. R1 professionalvides an enough operating present for D1 and the bias present for T1. It’s a excellent suggestion to use a Darlington kind for T1 to be able to maintain the worth of R1 reasonably excessive. The current thru D1 is simplest 10 mA with an enter voltage of 60 V. Naturally, we additionally measured what the circuit does when no load is connected. Surprisingly sufficient, the nominal output voltage of 5.02 V increased to best 5.10 V (with a 60-V input voltage). In our scans, we used a BDV65B for T1 and a value of 4.7 kΩ for R1.

If you are having a look to have to be sure that the circuit is really brief-circuit professionalof with an enter voltage of 60 V, you should use a transistor that is still within its safe working house at the maximum enter voltage with the brief circuit current of the regulator (which can exceed 2 A). The BDV65B and TIP142 do not meet this requirement. The maximum voltage for the BDV65B is actually 40 V, and for the TIP142 is 50 V. If the transistor spoils down, the regulator may even spoil down. We verified that experimentally. One risk is so as to add SOA professionaltection for T1, but that quantitys to professionaltecting the professionaltection. Another possibility is to chill out the requirements.

For that objective, R1 must provide enough current to ensure that T1 receives enough current in the event of a brief circuit to maintain the voltage across T1 decrease, however that doesn’t make various distinction in apply, and it additionally increases the minimal load. Besides that, it should be evident that adequate cooling for T1 and IC1 should be provided in maintaining with the load. Ripple suppression is only marginally littered with the professionaltection circuit, since the enter is already neatly stabilised by T1, however the current via D1 does go with the flow in the direction of the output. The presence of C2 should even be taken into account.

In this circuit, with an adjustable voltage regulator one of theses the LM317 and an output voltage greater than 40 V, C2 will cause the voltage to be in brief larger than 40 V in the experience of a brief circuit, which can additionally result in the IC to be damaged. In that case, it'll be important to discover a completely different solution or use a distinct type of voltage regulator.

Circuit Source: DIY Electronics Projects

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Light Dependent Resistors

LDRs or lightweight Dependent Resistors are terribly helpful particularly in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is incredibly high, typically as high as a thousand 000 ohms, however once they are illuminated with lightweight resistance drops dramatically.

 The animation opposite shows that when the torch is turned on, the resistance of the LDR falls, permitting current to have it.Circuit Wizard software has been used to show, the vary of values of a ORP12, LDR .
When a light-weight level of a thousand lux (bright light) is directed towards it, the resistance is 400R (ohms).

When a light-weight level of ten lux (very low light level) is directed towards it, the resistance has risen dramatically to ten.43M (10430000 ohms).

This is an example of a light-weight sensor circuit :

When the sunshine level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. This prevents current from flowing to the bottom of the transistors. Consequently the LED doesnt lightweight. However, when lightweight shines onto the LDR its resistance falls and current flows into the bottom of the primary transistor and then the second transistor. The LED lights.

The preset resistor will be turned up or right down to increase or decrease resistance, during this means it will build the circuit additional or less sensitive.


Bass Booster Circuit

Increase the bass output of your present instrument at modest cost!
Bass Boost is todays sound... whether its the driving, gut-vibration pulsation of disco, or the solid bass line of soft, hard, or laid-back rock. One way to get the modern bass-boost sound without running out and buying an all-new expensive piece of equipment is to use a Bass Booster between your guitar, electronic organ or what-have-you, and the instrument amplifier. 

A bass booster strips the highs from the instruments output signal and amplifies low frequencies, feeding on "all-bass" sound to the instrument amplifier. Naturally, the bigger the speaker used with the amp, the more powerful the bass: use 15-inchers with the Bass Booster and you can rattle the windows. Bass Booster is powered by an ordinary 9 volt transistor radio battery. It can be assembled on a small printed board or on a veroboard using point to point wiring. The booster connects between your instrument and its amplifier through two standard RCA Jacks.

Circuit Diagram:
Bass Booster Circuit Bass Booster Circuit Diagram
P1 = 50K
P2 = 100K
R1 = 22K
R2 = 470K
R3 = 47K
R4 = 10K
R5 = 470R
R6 = 1K
Q1 = 2N2222
C1 = 2.2uF-25v
C2 = 100nF-63v
C31 = 00nF-63V
C4 = 3.3uF-25v
C5 = 470uF-25v
D1 = 5mm. Red Led
Q1 = 2N2222
B1 = 9v Battery
J1 = RCA Audio Input Socket
J2 = RCA Audio Output Socket
S1 = On-Off Switch

Using Bass Booster:
Connect your electronic guitar or other electronic instrument to input jack J1; Connect output jack J2 to your instruments amplifiers normally-used input. With power switch S1 off, key S2 so the instrument feeds directly to the instrument amplifier. With P2 set full counter-clockwise (Off), turn power switch S1 on, key S2 once, and advance P2 for the desired Bass Boost level. To cut back to natural sound just stomp down on S2 and key the Bass Booster out. Dont worry about leaving power switch S1 on for several hours of a gig. The circuit pulls less than 1mA from the battery, so battery will last many, many months.

source :http://www.ecircuitslab.com

UV Torch Light

UVrn (ultra-violet) LEDs can produce crowd pleasing effects when their gentle rnis permited to intrude with certain colours, particularly with rnreflected light underneath near-dark conditions. Also try shining some UV rnlight on a diamond.

Circuit diagram :
UV Torch Light-Circuit Diagram
 UV Torch Light Circuit Diagram

Mostrn UV LEDs require about three.6 V (the ‘blue’ diode voltage) to gentle. Here, arn MAX761 step-up swaping IC is used to provide constant current to biasrn the UV diode. The IC hires PWM in high-cur-rent mode and rnautomatically modifications to PFM mode in low or medium energy mode to shop tons of rn(battery) energy. To enable it for use with two AA cells, the MAX761 isrn configured in bootstrapped mode with voltage-adjustable feedback. Up torn 4 cells may be used to power the circuit however they are going to add more rnweight than you need to for a torchlight. 

Torn lengthen the switch life, R1 is connected to the IC’s SHDN (shutdown) rnpin. Less than 50 nA can be measured in shutdown mode. Electrolytic rncapacitor C1 is used to decouple the circuit supply voltage. With-out rnit, ripple and noise may just cause instability. The one inductor within the rncircuit, L1, can have any value between about 10 and 50 µH. It stores rncurrent in its magnetic container whereas the MOSFET throughout the MAX761 is rnswitched. A toroid inductor is most popular on this position as it is going to rnguarantee low stray radiation. D1 must be a rather quick diode so rndon’t be tempted to make use of an 1N400x as a end result of it has a too gradual recovery rntime.
Thern circuit efficiency used to be measured at about 70%. R2, the resistor on the rnfeed-back pin of the MAX761 effectively decides the quantity of rnconstant present, I, despatched in the route of the UV LEDs, as follows: R2 = 1.5 / I
where I will doubtless be between 2 mA and 35 mA. 

Zenerrn diode D4 clamps the output voltage when the weight is disconnected, whichrn may just occur when one of the vital UV LEDs breaks down. Without a load, the rnMAX761 will change L1 right up to the raise voltage and so wreck rnitself.

Author : Myo Min

Saturday, April 13, 2013

LCD Module in 4 bit Mode

In many projects use is manufactured from alphanumeric LCDs that are pushed internally by using Hitachi’s industry-standard HD44780 controller. These displays can additionally be driven either in 4-bit or 8-bit mode. In the primary case only the excessive nibble (D4 to D7) of the display’s knowledge bus is used. The 4 unused connections still deserve some nearer consideration. The information lines can be utilized as either enters or outputs for the show. It is well known that an unloaded output is fine, but that a floating high-impedance enter can result in issues. So what must you do with the four unused knowledge traces when the display is used in 4-bit mode? This question arose when a circuit used to be submitted to us where D0-D3 where tied straight away to GND (the related applies if it was to +5 V) to forestall the problem of floating inputs.

The LCD module used to be driven directly via a microcontroller, which was on a building board for checking out more than a few packages and I/O performs. There was once a switch present for turning off the permit of the display when it was oncen’t being used, however this can be forgotten during some tests. When the R/Wline of the show is permanently tied to GND (data best goes from the microcontroller to the display) then the remaining strains can safely be related to the supply (+ve or GND). In this utility then again, the R/Wline was once additionally managed by the microcontroller. When the show is initialised correctly then no longerhing much will have to go unsuitable. The information sheet for the HD44780 isn't very clear as to what happens with the low nibble all through initialisation.

Circuit diagram :

LCD Module in 4-bit Mode Circuit Diagram

After the power-on reset the display will always be in 8-bit mode. A easy test (see the accompanying circuit) unearths that it is safer to use pull-down resistors to GND for the 4 low knowledge lines. The information strains of the display are configured as outputs on this circuit (R/Wis high) and the ‘enable’ is toggled (which can nonetheless occur, even supposing it's now not the intention to keep in touch with the display). Note that in observe the RS line will even be pushed through an I/O pin, and in our circuit the R/W line as smartly. All knowledge traces become excessive and it’s not certain if (and if that is the case, for the method long) the show can survive with four shorted data strains. The moral of the story is: in 4-bit mode you should always tie D0-D3 by means of resistors to ground or sure.


100 Watt Power Amplifier Circuit With IC TDA7294

Power Amplifier TDA7294 is a power amplifier with IC Power Amplifier is a mono 100W Class AB operation of OCL.

The power provide circuit. Positive, bad, and ground. Usually, we use the power supply circuit to + /-25V to + /-35V at 100W RMS shall be used to warmth sufficiently.

After many individuals have already made the TDA7294 as I comprehend, with a sound quality that's the very gods or Hi-End itself.

Several days ahead of the member’s PM to me announcing that I had an amplifier the utilization of IC TDA7294 to have extra of the same. Higher energy. And low warmth.

Achieved by rising the voltage elevating circuit For the more, it way high energy and excessive heat up. Today I have come throughout. I use IC TDA7294 circuit at the time.

In-Home Use amplifier circuit is a Class G amplifier with low energy consumption, ensuing within the loss of a 20V DC power less.

And when you’re driving a excessive-power random get entry to is celebration to a rhythm. Principles to do it. I took out a contributorship you are in a position to do is try to build up slightly.

We offers PCB each top and backside side for you.

500W Low Cost 12V to 220V Inverter

Note :This Circuit is using high voltage that is lethal. Please take appropriate precautions
Using this circuit that you could convert the 12V dc in to the 220V Ac. In this circuit 4047 is use to generate the sq. wave of 50hz and enlarge the current and then enlarge the voltage by means of the use of the step transformer. How to calculate transformer rating
The basic formula is P=VI and between input output of the transformer we've Power input = Power output
For example if we wish a 220W output at 220V then we want 1A at the output. Then on the input we should have at the least 18.3V at 12V because: 12V*18.3 = 220v*1

So you should wind the step up transformer 12v to 220v but input winding should be able to endure 20A.


Triangular Wave Oscillator

This design resulted from the need for a partial replacement of the well-known 8038 chip,  which is no longer in production and there fore hardly obtainable.

An existing design for driving an LVDT sensor (Linear Variable Differential Transformer),  where the 8038 was used as a variable sine  wave oscillator, had to be modernised. It may  have been possible to replace the 8038 with an  Exar 2206, except that this chip couldn’t be used  with the supply voltage used. For this reason we  looked for a replacement using standard components, which should always be available.

Triangular Wave Oscillator Circuit diagram:
Triangular Wave Oscillator-Circuit Diagram

In this circuit two opamps from a TL074 (IC1.A  and B) are used to generate a triangular wave,  which can be set to a wide range of frequencies using P1. The following differential amplifier using T1 and T2 is configured in such a way  that the triangular waveform is converted into  a reasonably looking sinusoidal waveform. P2  is used to adjust the distortion to a minimum.

The third opamp (IC1.C) is configured as a  difference amplifier, which presents the sine  wave at its output. This signal is then buffered by the last opamp (IC1.D). Any offset at the  output can be nulled using P3.

Author : Jac Hettema - Copyright : Elektor

Source : http://www.ecircuitslab.com/2012/06/triangular-wave-oscillator.html

Friday, April 12, 2013

Automatic Curtain Opener

This circuit can be used with a timer clock to open and shut curtains or (vertical) Venetian blinds. The curtain or blind is pushed by using  an electrical motor with a discount gearbox suited to the keep watch over mechanism of the curtain or blind. This circuit is good for giving your home an occupied look when you are away on vacation or for any different reason. In the author’s house, this association has provided a few 12 monthss of trouble-free carrier on quite a few home windows fitted  with Venetian blinds. 

The unique design was once a easy relay circuit with pushbuttons for opening and shutting and reed switches acting as restrict switches. The mechanical force is equipped by using a small DC motor with a reduction gearbox and pulley (all from Conrad Electronics).  It used to be later modified to work robotically with a timer clock. The timer operates a small  230-VAC (or 120-VAC) relay with a changeover contact. Thanks to the two timers, the motor stops after just a few 2nds if probably the most reed switches is overlooked as a consequence of a mechanical defect. 

Circuit diagram :

Automatic Curtain Opener Circuit Diagram
The circuit works as follows (see Figure 1). In the quiescent state, relays RE1–RE3 are de-energised and the motor is ceaseped. Open the blind: 

When the timer clock applies power to the 230-V (120-V) relay RE3, the voltage on the junction of C1 and R1 goes high. IC1 (a 555)  then receives a set off pulse on pin 2, which lead tos its output (pin 3) to go High and energise RE1, which in turn result ins the motor to begin running. When the magnet reaches reed  swap S1 (‘Open’), the 555 is reset. If the reed  switch does no longer function for some purpose, the relay is de-energised anyways when the  monostable times out (time extend = 1.1 RC;  roughly 5 seconds). Close the blind:
The timer clock cast offs power from RE3, which causes a trigger pulse to be utilized to the opposite 555 timer (IC2) via R5 and C4. Now the motor starts operating within the other direction. The rest of the operation is similar as described above for opening the blind. Diodes D2 and D5 stop the outputs of the 555 ICs from being pulled bad when the relay is de-energised, which could differentwise result in the timer ICs to malfunction. 

All  elements  of  the  mechanical  power  come from Conrad Electronics [2]: a motor with a reduction gearbox (type RB32, order quantity 221936) and a pulley (V-belt pulley, order number 238341) on the output shaft. An O-ring is suited to the pulley to provide  sufficient friction with the force chain of the Venetian blind. The magnet for actuating the  reed swapes is a rod magnet with a hole within the middle (order number 503659), and the chain of the Venetian blind is fed thru this hole.

Author : Ton Smits  - Copyright : Elekto

How to Make a Simple Timer Circuit Using IC 555

A timer is a device which produces a delay period after which an external connected electrical load is triggered. The produced time delay is normally adjustable and the user has the freedom to set the time period as desired. There are many ways of making simple timer circuits using different ICs and discrete components; here we discuss one such circuit using the ubiquitous IC 555.

The IC 555 is a pretty common electronic part among the electronic enthusiasts and is also very popular due to the involved simple configurations and low component count.

The two popular multivibrator modes of operation that’s associated with this IC are the astable mode, and the monostable mode. Both of these are useful configurations and have plenty of different applications.

For the present design we incorporate the second mode of operation, which is the monostable mode.

In this mode of operation the IC is configured to receive a trigger externally, so that it’s output changes state, meaning if with reference to the ground if the output of the IC is zero, then it would become positive as soon as the trigger (momentary) is received at its input terminal.

This change in its output is sustained for a certain period if time, depending upon the external time determining components. Normally the time determining components are in the form of a resistor and a capacitor which together determine or fix the time period for which the IC output would hold its “high” position.

By changing either the value of the capacitor or the resistor, the timing can be altered as desired. The above time fixing components are termed as the RC component.

The figure shows a very straightforward design where the IC 555 forms the central controlling part of the circuit. As discussed in the above section, the IC is in its standard monostable mode.

Pin #2 receives the external timing trigger from a push-to-ON switch. Once this switch is pushed, the circuit pulls its output to a positive potential   and holds it until the predetermined time delay lapses.

The entire circuit can be built over a small piece of general PCB and housed inside a neat looking plastic enclosure along with the battery.

The output may be ideally connected to a buzzer for receiving the warning alarm after the set time lapses.

Parts List

R1, R4 = 4K7,
R2 = 10K,
R3 = 1M pot,
C1 = 0.47uF,
C2 = 1000uF/25V,
C3 = 0.01uF,
IC1 = 555,
Bz1 = Piezo Buzzer,
Push Button = push to ON switch

A circuit design requested by Mr.Bourgeoisie:


1997 Chevy 2500 Pick Up 5 7l engin Wiring Diagram

1997 chevy 2500 pick up 5.7l engin Wiring Diagram

The Part of 1997 chevy 2500 pick up 5.7l engin Wiring Diagram: fuel pump oil pressure switch, fuel
pump prime connector, power distribution cell, fuel pump and sender, dual tanks, fuel pump balance relay, vahicle control module, underhood fuse relay, ECM fuse.

LM317 Automatic Low Cost Emergency Light

Here is an emergency lighting based on white LEDs offer the following advantages:

1. It is very bright thanks to the use of white LEDs.

2. The light turns on automatically when the mains fails and shuts down when power resumes.

3. It has its own office. When the battery is fully charged, the charging stops.

The circuit consists of two parts: the charger from the socket and the power LED part driver.The Charger is built around the 3-terminal adjustable regulator (IC1) LM317, while the LED driver is built on part of the transistor BD140 (T2). In the power charger power transformer in the AC input is a step down to give a 9V 500mA bridge rectifier consisting of diodes (IN4007x4). Filter capacitor (25v/1000uf) to eliminate the ripples. Unregulated DC power is fed to IC1 pin 3 and provides a charging current through the diode IN4007 (D5) and limiting resistance (16ohm) R16. By providing pre-k 2.2 (VR1), the output voltage can be adjusted to provide the required charging current. When the battery may require a 6.8V, and the barrier makes the charging current regulator (IC1) to find a path through the transistor BC547 (T1) to ground and stops charging. LED driver section is used a total of twelve 10 mm white LEDs.

Circuit diagram :

LOW-COST-AUTOMATIC-EMERGENCY-LIGHT-e1297471252686Automatic Low Cost Emergency Light LM317  Circuit diagram

All LEDs are connected in parallel with the resistance of 100 ohms in series with each other. junction common anode for all twelve LED is connected to the collector of PNP transistor T2 and the emission level of the transistor T2 is directly related to the positive terminal of 6V battery. Unregulated DC voltage produced by the cathode junction of Bridge (diodes), is fed to create a transistor T2 through a resistor of 1k. When the voltage is available, the fund is still high transistor T2 and T2 does not happen. The lights are off. On the other hand, if the power does not, the transistor T2 will be a small fund and it does. This causes all the LEDs (LED1 through LED12) is lit. Network, as it is available, download and keep the lights off the battery as an indicator of transistor T2 is cut-off. During the blackout, the workload is steady and makes the battery will light up.

Assemble the circuit on a general purpose PCB and enclose in a cabinet with enough space for the battery and switches. Mount the LED in the housing to illuminate the room. A hole in the box must be drilled to connect the 230V AC input to the transformer primary. I tested the circuit with twelve white 10 mm LEDs.You can use several diodes, provided that the total energy consumption does not exceed 1.5. Driver transistor T2 can provide up to 1.5 In accordance with a proper heat sink.

Source : freecircuit.net


Result Electric Trailer Brake Wiring Diagrampagelookpdf

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on Chevrolet Monte Carlo Wiring Diagram And Electrical Schematics  1997
Chevrolet Monte Carlo Wiring Diagram And Electrical Schematics 1997.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on Ford Ranger Wiring Diagram   Electrical System Circuit And Wire
Ford Ranger Wiring Diagram Electrical System Circuit And Wire.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on Electrical Troubleshooting And Wiring Diagram  87    Circuit Schematic
Electrical Troubleshooting And Wiring Diagram 87 Circuit Schematic.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on 2004 Gmc Sierra Junction Block And Relay Diagram   Circuit Schematic
2004 Gmc Sierra Junction Block And Relay Diagram Circuit Schematic.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on Trailer Wiring Diagrams Pinouts
Trailer Wiring Diagrams Pinouts.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on Result For Electric Trailer Brake Wiring Diagram   Page 1 Lookpdf Com
Result For Electric Trailer Brake Wiring Diagram Page 1 Lookpdf Com.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on Hybrid High Voltage Interlock Circuit Diagram   Circuit Schematic
Hybrid High Voltage Interlock Circuit Diagram Circuit Schematic.

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Chevrolet Tahoe Blazer Electrical Wiring Diagram Circuit Schematic.

Trailer Wiring Diagrams on 2002 Nissan Frontier Wiring Diagram Electrical System Troubleshooting
2002 Nissan Frontier Wiring Diagram Electrical System Troubleshooting.

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Trailer Wiring Diagram 7 Wire Circuit Truck To Trailer New Cars.


Mobile Cellphone Battery Charger

Charging of the cell phone battery is a big problem while touring as energy provide supply is now not on a standard basis on hand. In case you keep your mobile phone switched on repeatedly, its battery will go flat within to 6 hours, making the mobile phone useless. A absolutely charged battery grow to bes necessary when your distance from the closest relay station increases. Here is an easy costr that replenishes the mobile phone battery inside to hours. Fundamentally, the costr is a current-limited voltage supply. Usually, mobile phone battery packs want three.6-6V DC & one hundred eighty-200mA present for charging. These frequently include NiCd cells, every having one.2V ranking. Current of 100mA is for charging the cell phone battery at a gradual fee. A 12V battery incorporateing eight pen cells provides adequate present (one.8A) to cost the battery related across the output terminals.

Diagram  of cellphone costr

The circuit additionally monitors the voltage stage of the battery. It robotically lowers off the charging device when its output terminal voltage will increase above the predetermined voltage level. Timer IC NE555 is used to charge & monitor the voltage stage within the battery. Control voltage pin five of IC1 is supplied with a reference voltage of five.6V with the help of zen-er diode ZD1. Threshold pin 6 is provided with a voltage set via VR1 & trigger pin two is equipped with a voltage set by using VR2. When the discharged mobile phone battery is connected to the circuit, the voltage given to trigger pin two of IC1 is beneath 1/3Vcc & therefore the flip-flop within the IC is switched on to take output pin three excessive.

When the battery is fully charged, the output terminal voltage will increase the voltage at pin two of IC1 above the trigger level threshold. This switches off the flip-flop & the output goes low to terminate the charging means. Threshold pin 6 of IC1 is referenced at 2/3Vcc set with the help of VR1. Transistor T1 is used to reinforce the charging current. Value of R3 is very important in offering the vital present for charging. With the given price of 39-ohm the charging present is round one hundred eighty mA.

The circuit can be built on a tiny general-purpose PCB. For calibration of cut-off voltage stage, use a variable DC energy source. Connect the output terminals of the circuit to the variable energy supply set at 7V. Fine-tune VR1 within the center place & gradually fine-tune VR2 unless LED1 goes off, indicating low output. LED1 should activate when the voltage of the variable energy supply scale backs under 5V. Enclose the circuit in a tiny plastic case & use suitable connector for connecting to the cellphone battery.

Track Your Distance Through a Bicycle Odometer

Just like cars that measures the distance it can travel, you can also do it with your bicycles. We usually keep track of our mileage to see how far our strength can go but would it be of great use if we track it because we are maintaining a workout everyday considering the calories we are burning.

Hacks and Mods: Track Your Distance Through a Bicycle Odometer

If you want to make your own odometer, you will need a micro controller that generates pulse and a MOSFET that converts those voltage pulses. Just remember to check your batteries all the time.
The best way of burning calories is to move those muscles everyday! Set your bikes and your odometer! Burn fats!

Thursday, April 11, 2013

Building a radio station

Requires us to make things systematically and efficiently, because time is very valuable to us, then some of the advances in technology has been applied in various fields, including education, because this is where all the technological advances developed.Lots of technology is rapidly expanding in our country today. With technology growing by leaps and bounds this is what will make the work more systematic and efficient.Based on our technological advances and his friends create a system are related to the Electronics course, we propose the same faculty to develop a community tool. We got a second job in four semesters, which makes the FM transmitter.
Departing from hobby assembling electronic items, we try to assemble a mini-power transmitter that can emit a short signal of approximately 100 meters with power (power) 5 watts. This is a pilot who later became 12 watts. With 12 watts of power, radio broadcasts to reach a village. 
1.2 Formulation of ProblemProblems are handled from this lab assignment is to create and analyze the quality of an FM transmitter to get the data at test point 1, point 2 test, test point 3 and the exact frequency as desired.Things are of practical tasks is restricted only to analyze the quality of a transmitter and retrieve data from an existing test point. 
1.3 LimitationsProblems to be addressed in this lab assignment is limited to some of the following:1 • Retrieving data from the frequency and calculate TP 1 to TP 3.2 • Analyze a transmitter in the room, based on measurement data and make conclusions. 
1.4 ObjectivesObjectives to be achieved in this task are:A. Students can design and make the circuit in fm transmitter.2. 12 Watt FM transmitter that can be made of appropriate tools and can be marketed. 
1.5 MethodologyIn completing this lab assignment, the steps are as follows:1 • Learn about basic electronics concepts and learn concepts about the mechanism of FM modulation.2 • Analyze and conclude the experimental results, and give advice when it is applied to the practical task of the real system.3 • Preparing a report on second semester practicum assignment. 
1.6 DiscussionThis book of this lab assignment consists of 5 (five) chapters, in each chapter related to one another, namely: 
CHAPTER 1:Provide background on the issues, goals, problems and constraints of the problems discussed in this lab assignment.CHAPTER 2:Provide the theoretical basis to support problem solving in this lab assignment. The basic theory is given include: the mechanism of the tool inused in making the FM transmitter 
CHAPTER 3:Planning and manufacture of tools and how each blog diagram contained in FM transmitterCHAPTER 4:Contains the results of calculations and data processing, and analysis resultscalculation.CHAPTER 5:Provide conclusions about the results already obtained and suggestions.CHAPTER IIBASIC THEORY 
2.1 Koker

Koker serves to regulate or determine the frequency of the radio transmitter. In koker also Ferrite that serves as a core inductor in addition there is an inductance coil comprising primary and secondary winding. Way of working is to facilitate search koker empty wave. When filling koker in turn to the right to a maximum frequency of the oscillator produce more low. If the FM transmitter lights, turn left up the core koker to hissing on the FM radio signal is lost it will be found a strong and stable.

2.2 Inductor

Coil of wire that is wrapped with a particular matter, in this case to determine the value of the inductor is typically used Q-meter. Inductor serves as an impedance adjustment, so that the output of the impedance can be changed and in accordance with the desired (match).

2.3 Transistor

 Transistors have two connections, one of which is the emitter and the other base and collector. Because this is a transistor as two diodes. ransistor C1970 type normally used to raise the voltage 0.8 to 1 watt, I think it was in the C1970 study could increase about 8 times.On the C1971 transistor can be coupled directly from the exciter circuit and the voltage of 6.5 to 7 watts or bias raised about 10 times.If the C1970 to C1971 join the output power of about 12 watts or more. (All will be explained in Chapter III) 

2.4 ExciterExciter circuit consists of an oscillator and buffer.•  OscillatorTransmitter is the core of an oscillator. To be able to build a good communication system should begin with an oscillator that can work perfectly. In the communication system, the oscillator generates a sine wave is used as the carrier signal. Then the information signal is superimposed on a carrier signal with the modulation process.•  Buffer (Buffer)All types of oscillators require a buffer. Buffer serves to stabilize the frequency and / or amplitude of the oscillator from loading the next level. Usually a buffer consisting of 1 or 2 levels of the transistor amplifier dibias as class A.The heart of the broadcast transmitter FM exciter is located on it. Function of the exciter is to generate and modulate a carrier wave with one or more input (mono, stereo, SCA) in accordance with FCC standards. Which has been modulated carrier wave is then amplified by a wideband amplifier to the level required by the next level. 

2.5 BoosterPower amplifier is more popularly known as Booster. Booster is a device mounted radio transmitters attached to and used to amplify radio frequency transmit power in any direction that you want to go. For example, for a transmitter power of 25 watts which include only a single village, Booster is used to transmit power to be 50 to 100 watts so it can besurrounding the district. Boosters are generally small squares connected by cable to the transmitter which he built.Power amplifier is divided into two. First, the power amplifier which amplifies the signal in one cycle, the best signal quality and harmonious. The second, which only reinforces the power amplifier input signal is less than half of the cycle and generate a wave that damaged the same frequency.

2.6 Antenna

 Antenna function and simultaneously capture signals radiate radio wave radiation. The antenna is divided into two by the beam, ie• omnidirectional (all directions). This antenna radiates radio waves are equally strong all directions.• Bidirectional (both directions). This antenna radiates equally strong radio waves to only two directions. Two parameters that need to be considered is the polarization of the antenna and its gain. Put simply, an antenna has vertical polarization if the antenna is placed in a position perpendicular to the earth. Antenna with vertical polarization would produce radio waves with vertical polarization as well. In addition to the vertical, some horizontal polarized antenna, when the antenna is positioned parallel to the field of the earth.

2.7 Transmission LineTransmission line is the introduction to the generated power to the transmitter antenna. As an introduction to power, a good transmission line will not reduce the power of delivery and did not radiate, because it is the duty antennas radiate. So that the maximum power transfer occurs, then the transmission line characteristic impedance should also have the same view of resource load. Transmission line characteristic impedance is 300 W common (ribbon cable to the black and white TV), 75 W (on a color TV coaxial cable) and 50W (coaxial cable to the amateur radio equipment).Additional tools are in need in assembling a 12-watt FM transmitter, among which are:
 •  Power MeterPower Meter is a tool to measure the wave. On a transmission line that is not worth it, but the waves come rolling waves are reflected. Wave dating from the source to the load direction (from transmitter to antenna), while the reflected wave from the opposite direction (from the antenna to the transmitter). Usually on the Power Meter has two scales, onecame to power and one for the reflected power. The reflected power scale to be smaller than the scale for the future.
 •  SWR MeterSWR meter or measuring comparative standing waves are used to measure the ratio of the incident wave and reflected wave. So it is known how a resource commensurate with the burden. The working principle is based on the Power Meter SWR Meter. If there is only one Power Meter measurements, the SWR can be calculated from the incident power (Pf) andthe reflected power (Pr) with the formula:SWR = (OPF + ÖPr) (OPF - ÖPr).
• From the formula, the state equivalent (Pr = O) will be obtained SWR = 1.
• For a state that is not worth going to get SWR> 1.
• For the worst circumstances in which all power is reflected back dating (Pf = Pr) will get the SWR = infinity.
•  Dummy LoadTo be able to broadcast a maximum transmit power, but efficient, it takes a load impedance that is known with certainty as it is called Dummy Load reference. Dummy Load is free from the influence of frequency and can handle the disposal of the transmit power is too great. Dummy Load impedance is usually 50 or 75 Ohm. Dummy Load can be made withput some resistors in parallel in order to obtain the desired resistance and power. Parallelize some resistors minimize the stray inductance of the resistor. For example, can use the carbon resistor 300 Ohm / 2 watt for 6 seeds that are connected in parallel to get the Dummy Load with power of 12 watts and 50 Ohm impedance.

3.1. PreliminaryTo plan and create a 12 Watt FM transmitter, need to know first about a block diagram of the system, the working system of the circuit isOverall, the calculations and planning.
3.2. System Block Diagram and Figure Series Overall

The picture above shows a block diagram of this system and imageThe overall network is made in full.Transmission System Block Diagram picture as a whole
3.2.1 Block diagram of the image transmitter exciter circuit FM

Picture Exciter Circuit Network consists of exciter oscillator and buffer. In this Exciter Network using the specification of components as follows:•  Koker•  Inductor: L2 = 0.12 micro-Henry, Henry Micro L3 = 0.12, L4 = 0.2 micro-Henry•  Transistor: C930•  Ohm: 5.6 K, 47 K, 33 K•  Babysitter WANTED: 2.2 nF, 100 nF, 18 pF, 20 pF, 5 pF•  trimer: 5-60 pFExciter is a network that produces oscillations, because the exciter are oscillator that acts as a sine wave generator and it will be dimodulasikan. In the oscillator system is also available buffer (buffer) that functions to stabilize the frequency / modulation oscillator amplifier due to the loading process by the next level. 
3.2.2 Network Booster (Power Amplifier)

The series of images BoosterIn the Booster circuit uses components withthe following specifications: 
 •  Inductors: L1 = 0.2 micro-Henry. L2 = 0.2 micro-Henry. 0085 L3 = L4 = 0.04 micro micro Henry Henry. L5 = 0.1 micro-Henry. L6 = 0.2 micro-Henry L7 = 0.2 micro-Henry. 
 •  Transistor 1970: 10 V VCEIc 0.1 AΒ 10-180 
 •  trimer: 5-30 pFBooster circuit consists of two levels of transistor amplifiers, each working on a class C, each input and output transistor amplifier circuit is given impedance adjustment.Strengthening of the first transistor using C1970. Strengthening the circuit has a 9.2 dB power gain (8 times), so that from the exciter-power 0.25 W of power generated should be 2 W. In fact the output of this first level of reinforcement produces only 1.75 Watt power, this is due to the loss of matching network circuit.Strengthening of the second level using transistor C1971. The amplifier circuit has a 10dB power gain (10 times). So that the power of the first level of 1.75 W can be strengthened to 17.5 W. In fact strengthening the power of the second level only reached 12.5 Watt. 
This is due to the loss of matching network and the limited range ofC1971 transistor. Because the price of the C1971 transistor is relatively expensive it is to use only the C1970 transistor. Therefore, the power generated by the transmitter is not as high as 12 Watt. Because of the heat generated second transistor is large enough then we put enough cooling. 

GeneralThis chapter discusses the testing and analysis system that has been made. In general, this test aims to determine if the device has been realized that can be worked in accordance with a predetermined plan specifications. The purpose of the tests performed on the system are as follows: 
•  Knowing how the exciter circuit 
•  Knowing how the booster circuit

4.2 Testing exciter circuit
•  The purposeTo find out if the oscillator can work well and achieve the desired frequency. And also to determine whether the buffer is running properly.
•  The equipment usedA. Koker2. Inductor3. Transistor4. Resistor5. Trimer6. Dummy Load7. 5 volt power supply8. Multimeter9. Frequency Counter10. PCB
•  The test procedureTest Block DiagramA. Assemble the equipment used in accordance Picture2. Provide 12 volt power supply to the exciter circuit3. Switch the exciter circuit to get the most power in large4. Calculate the voltage at TP 1, TP 2 and, TP 35. Observe the output (at V output)
•  The test resultsThe test results are shown in Table. the following:Exciter circuit Testing ResultsTest Results PointA 0.6V2 0.6V3 11.75 V
 4.3 Testing a series of booster
•  The purposeTo gain greater power and also increase the distance range of further emission up to 7-fold.
•  The equipment usedA. Inductor2. Transistor3. Trimer4. Dummy Load5. 12 Volt Power Supply
•  The test procedureTesting Block Diagram Picture Booster:A. Assemble the equipment used in accordance Picture2. Large test circuit voltage that can be accepted3. Observing the output
•  The test resultsThe test results are shown in Table. the following:Booster circuit Testing ResultsTest Results Point4 11,755 11,75

5.1. ConclusionBased on the test results it can be concluded:
•  In a series of FM transmitters weve made, the power output is only 2 Watt for C1970 transistor used is that only 1 Watt power up
•  FM transmitter that can be made only reach 93 MHz frequency
•  The distance achieved depends on the power emitted by the FM transmitter
 5.2 Advice
•  If you want to make the transmitter starts with a good oscillator.
• If you want to make a series of FM with a power greater then use the transistor C1971, C1946. the power generated about 25 watts.
• To balance the output of the FM transmitter mounted circuit PLL (Phase Local Loop).


24V DC Powered Beeper with 4 Separate Inputs

24v DC is a very popular voltage used in industrial settings. This hobby circuit below was designed to accept four different 24v DC alarm input signals, which are then used to drive a single low power beeper. The beeper is a magnetic type with its own oscillator/driver. The four diodes form an “OR” gate so any one of the four inputs will cause the beeper to make noise. A CMOS version of the popular 555 timer is used to strobe the beeper on and off at about 1Hz.

24V DC Powered Beeper with 4 Separate Inputs 

Copyright: Discover Circuits

Wire Loop Game

In the ‘Wire Loop Game’, a test of dexterity,  the player has to pass a metal hoop along a  twisted piece of wire without letting the hoop  touch the wire. Usually all the associated electronics does is ring a bell to indicate when the  player has lost. The version described here has  a few extra features to make things a bit more  exciting, adding a time limit to the game and a ticking sound during play. 

Two 555 timer ICs are used to provide these  functions. IC1 is configured as a monostable which controls the time allowed for the  game, adjustable using potentiometer P1. IC2  is a multivibrator to provide the ticking and Two 555 timer ICs are used to provide these  functions. IC1 is configured as a monostable which controls the time allowed for the  game, adjustable using potentiometer P1. IC2  is a multivibrator to provide the ticking and he continuous buzz that indicates when the  player has touched the wire with the hoop. 

Circuit diagram :
Wire Loop Game-Circuit Diagram
Wire Loop Game Circuit Diagram

When the monostable is in its steady state,  the output of IC1 (pin 3) is low. T1 acts as  an inverter, and D2 is thus forward biased.  R8 and R4 are therefore effectively in parallel, with the result that IC2 produces a low audible tone. The value of R4 is considerably  greater than that of R8, and so the frequency  of the buzz generated by IC2 is chiefly deter-mined by the value of R8.

When the monostable is triggered, the high  level at the output of IC1 is again inverted  by T1. D2 is reverse biased and so R8 is effectively removed from the circuit. The frequency of IC2 is now largely determined by  the value of R4. The ratio of R4 to R5 and the  value of C4 affect the mark and space periods for the multivibrator: for a satisfactory  ticking sound short pulses with long gaps  between work well. 

Whether a sound is produced also depends  on the voltage on pin 4 of IC2. When the 9 V  supply is connected the monostable is initially inactive and there is no voltage across  C1. Pin 4 (reset) on IC2 is thus low and no tone  is produced. IC1 is activated by a brief press of  S1, which generates a low-going trigger signal  on pin 2 to start the game. C1 now charges via  D1 and IC2 is allowed to oscillate, generating  the ticking sound. 

The pulse width of the monostable sets the  game duration, and can be adjusted using  P1. If the allowed time expires, or if the reset  input to IC1 is taken low (which happens when the hoop touches the wire), the monostable  returns to the quiescent state. This causes IC2  to generate the low buzz sound. D1 is now  reverse biased and C1 discharges through the  relatively high-valued resistor R9. After a few  seconds the voltage across C1 falls sufficiently  that the buzz stops and the circuit is ready for  the next player. 

The circuit can be built first on a breadboard,  so that the component values can easily be changed to suit particular preferences for  game duration and buzz pitch. When suitable  values have been selected the circuit can be  built more permanently on a printed circuit  board. The author used a sheet of plywood  to form a base for the game, the twisted wire  being fixed to the board and wired to the electronics mounted below it. 


Simple Infra red Receiver

This very simple infra-red receiver is intended to form an infra-red remote control system with the simple infra-red transmitter described in this site. The system does not use any kind of coding or decoding, but the carrier of the transmitter is modified in a simple manner to provide a constant switching signal. Since the receive module, IC1, switches from low to high (in the quiescent state, the output is high) when the carrier is received for more than 200 milliseconds, the carrier is transmitted in the form of short pulse trains. This results in a pulse at the output of the receiver that has a duty cycle which is just larger than 12.5%. The carrier frequency used in the system is 36 kHz, so that the output frequency of IC1 is 281.25 Hz.

Infra-red Receiver Circuit diagram :

This signal is rectified with a time constant that is long enough to ensure good smoothing, so that darlington T1 is open for as long as the received signal lasts. A drawback of this simple system is that it may pick up signals transmitted by another infra-red (RC5) controller. In this case, only the envelopes of the pulse trains would appear at the output of T1. This effect may, of course, be used intentionally. For instance, the receiver may be used to drive an SLB0587 dimmer. Practice has shown that the setting of the SLB0587 is not affected by the RC5 pulses. The receiver draws a current of about 0.5 mA.

Source : www.ecircuitslab.com/2011/05/infra-red-receiver-circuit.html

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